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Surah (112) Ikhlas (tawhid)

 

سورةُ الإخلاص‏

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحيمِ قُلْ هُوَ اللَّهُ أَحَدٌ (1) اللَّهُ الصَّمَدُ (2) لَمْ يَلِدْ وَ لَمْ يُولَدْ (3) وَ لَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ كُفُواً أَحَدٌ (4)

In The Name of Allah, The Beneficent, The Merciful 1. Say: He, Allah, is One,

2. Allah, the Eternal,

3. He begets not, nor is He begotten,

4. And there is none like unto Him.

Commentary:

The first verse, of this Sura, is an answer to the repeated question of many persons from different groups of people or tribes who asked about the attributes and identity of Allah. The command is:

Say: He, Allah, is One, It begins with the Arabic term/ huwa/ 'He' which is a pronoun-third-person and refers to something known to all, but ambiguous and not identified with any, as against the usual reference in the term of first person singular 'I'. It is, indeed, a code referring to the fact that His Holy Being is extremely concealed and no human

Commentary(Noor al-Quran), Vol12, Page: 294

 

thought or imagination can touch it, though the signs of His Existence have filled the world, totally, and are more apparent and clear than all things, as Sura Fussilat, No. 41, verse 53 says: Soon will We show them Our Signs in the( furthest )regions( of the earth ), and in their own souls, until it becomes manifest to them that this is the Truth ...

. Then, it makes this unknown fact manifest by saying that 'Allah is One'.

By the way, the term/ qul/, here, means 'express this fact and tell others'.

A tradition from Imam Mohammad Baqir( p. b. u. h. )says that after expressing this statement he has said: Pagans and idol worshippers used to point to their idols using demonstrative pronouns and say: 'O Mohammad, these are our gods that can be seen. You, too, describe your God so that we can see and understand'. Allah revealed these verses: 'Say: He, Allah, is One', and the/ h/ in the word/ huwa/ refers to the confirmation of the matter and takes it into consideration. And/ w/ is a third person pronoun which refers to the meaning that it is concealed from the sight of the eyes and it is beyond the limits of the touch of the senses.­ 1‑

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ALTAFSIR --Surah Ikhlas 2

Tawhid 2

 

In another tradition, Imam Amir-ul-Mo'mineen Ali( p. b. u. h. )says: On the night before the battle of Badr I saw 'Khidr' in my dream. I asked him to teach me something with which I would defeat the enemies. He told me: 'Say:/ ya hu ya man la huwa illa hu/, The next morning I told the Messenger of Allah( p. b. u. h. )what had happened, and he( p. b. u. h. )said: 'O Ali you have been taught the Greatest Name( of Allah )'. Thereafter, I repeatedly said the phrase in the battle of Badr.­ 2‑

When 'Ammar Yasir heard that Hazrat Ali( p. b. u. h. )was reciting this phrase, habitually, while he was fighting on the day of Siffin, he asked him what it was, and Hazrat Ali( p. b. u. h. )replied: It is the Greatest Name( of Allah )and the pillar of monotheism.­ 3‑

Allah is a proper name for God, and the meaning of the Imam's expression is that in this very word are gathered all His attributes of

 

 

Bounty and Glory, and due to this it has been called 'The Greatest of Name'.

This proper name is used for nothing but God, while other names for Allah

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Fourteen Infallibles 17

Fourteen 17

Mohammad 4

After an interval, the voice from heaven spoke again “O thou shrouded in thy mantle, arise, and warn, and magnify thy Lord ‘’ This was a signal for him to start preaching the gospel of One God. In the beginning Muhammad invited only those near him, to accept the new Faith. The first to embrace Islam among women was Khadijah and among men ‘Ali. Soon after, azaayd ibnal-Harithah became a convert to the new Faith followed by Abu Baker and ‘Uthman. Umar hitherto a violent opponent of Islam, notorious for the persecution of the Muslim and a bitter enemy of the Prophet, embraced Islam, later.      

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Reciprocal Rights 19

Reciprocal 19

Rights of leaders

14. As for the right of your ruler (sultan) is that you should know that you have been made a trail (fitnah) for him and that he is on test through you by the power  he has been granted by God over you. And you should sincerely wish him well without quarelling with him, because his hands are strongly upon you and {by opposing him} you would be a causes of your own destruction and also of his destruction. And beseech his pleasure with humbleness and courtesy as much as is useful in averting his harm from you and does not interfere with your religion; and ask the help of God in this task. And do not indulge in opposition to, or hatred of him because if you did so, you would be ungrateful to him {because if, as a result of this hatred, he was unjust to you he would be disgraced before God} and ungrateful to yourself {because you made yourself a target for his tyranny}, and thus you would be counted as his helper against yourself and his partner in whatever he did against you. And there is no power save in God.

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Prayer (Salat) 18

Salat 18

Fig 2

    مالک یوم الدین                                                                                                  Maliki Yawmi-d-Din.

(The Master of the Day of judgement.)

Although a Muslim believes in the mercy and forgiveness of Allah and is hopeful if His Compassion, yet on the other hand, as Allah is just, he fears His punishment. He does not get self-conceited, and knows that his good and bad deeds will be weighed on the Day of judgement.

ایاک نعبد و ایاک نستعین                                                                                        

Iyyaka na’ budu wa Iyyaka nasta’in (You (alone) we worship and you (Alone) we ask for help.)

A Muslim always relies upon Allah and the abounding possibilities and power bestowed upon him by providence, and never extends his hand to any individual for help.

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SAHIFEH SAJJADIEH 20

 

Sahifah Sajjadiyyah 20

Doa’s 42

O God,

Thou sent it down upon Thy prophet Muhammad (God bless him and his household) in summary from, Thou inspired him with the science of its wonders to complement it, Thou made us the heirs of its knowledge as interpreters, Thou made us to surpass him who is ignorant of its knowledge, and Thou gave us strength over it to raise us above those not able to carry it.

O God, just as Thou hast appointed our hearts as its carriers and made known to us through Thy mercy its nobility and excellence, so also bless Muhammad, its preacher, and his Household, its guardians, and place us among those who confess that it has come from Thee, lest doubt about attesting to it assail us, or deviation from its straightforward path shake us!       

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Nahgolbalagheh 22

Nahjal-Balaghah 22

Commandment 31

Surely, those (who go) after it are like barking dogs or devouring carnivore who hate each other. The stronger among them eat away the weaker and the big among them tramples over the small. Some are like tied cattle and some like untied cattle who have lost their wits and are running in unknown directions. They are flocks of calamities wandering in rugged valleys. There is no herdsman to detain them nor any tenderer to take them to grazing. The world has put them on the track of blindness and taken away their eyes from the beacons of guidance. They have therefore been perplexed in its bewilderings and sunk in its pleasures. They took it, as a god so it played with them. They too played with it and forgot what is beyond it.         

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Nahgolbalagheh 23

 

Nahjal-balaghah 23

Commandment 31

Darkness is disappearing gradually. Now it is as though travelers have got down and the hasteners will soon meet. Know, O’ my child, that everyone who is riding on the carriage of night and day is being carried by them even though he may be stationary, and he is covering the distance even though he is staying and resting. Know with certainty that you cannot achieve your desire and cannot exceed your destined life. You are on the track of those before you. Therefore, be humble in seeking and moderate, in earning because often seeking leads to deprivation. Every seeker of livelihood does not get it, nor is everyone who is moderate in seeking deprived. Keep yourself away from every low thing even though they may take you to your desired aims, because you will not get any return for your own respect which you spend. Do not be the slave of other for Allah had made you free. There is no good in good which is achieved through evil and no good in comfort that is achieved through (disgracing) hardship.         

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Prayer (Salat) 19

 

Salat 19

Fig 2

Of course he does accept the help of others in the performance of his task. But this help is either by way of contract or out of friendship and cordiality or as Per the rules, and regulations, which are by themselves a kind of social contracts. However, in return for any help rendered, he pays for it in cash or credit through his dealings; neither others’ help to him nor his help to others has any tint of pompous bossiness or charging obligation for favour done. A Muslim neither accepts any aid with lordliness, nor does he look for help from anyone with expectation and greed. He instead relies on Allah, and works hard, utilizing his potentials and Allah-gifted faculties. He is happy with a moderate income which meets his daily needs, and leads an honest and pious life.

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Reciprocal Rights 20

Reciprocal 20

D. Rights of subjects

17. As for the right of your subjects in authority ( ra’iyyah) is that you should know that you have subjugated them as a result of your superior power, and that they are your subjects because of their weakness and timidity. How deserving of mercy, protection and forbearance is the person whose weakness and servility did your work for you in making him your subject and enforcing your command upon him, so much so that he is now helpless and powerless against you and can find no helper { if you put him in trouble } except God. And how important is it for you to thank God when you appreciate His grace in bestowing this power and strength upon you. And God increases His bounties for one who is thankful to Him. And there is no power save in God.

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Fourteen Infallibles 18

Fourteen 18

Mohammad 5

For three long years, he labored quietly to wean his people from the worship of idols and drew only thirty followers. Muhammad now decided to appeal publicly to the Quraysh to give up idol worship and embrace Islam. He invited forty of his kinsmen to a feast. At the gathering, Muhammad stated that he had lived a lifetime among them and asked if they had ever found him lying? The general response was; we have never found you lying, O al-Amin!; The prophet of Islam asked if he were to tell them that their enemies had collected beyond the sand- hills to attack them, would they believe? The reply was,; yes.; “will you believe anything I will now say? Again the reply was, ;Yes. ; The prophet addressed them: I know no man in all Arabia, who can offer his kindreds, a more excellent thing than I now do. I offer you happiness both in this life and that which is to come. God Almighty has commanded me to call unto Him. Who, therefore, among you will assist me herein shall become my Brother and my caliph?                   a

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ALTAFSIR --Surah Ikhlas 3

    Tafsir

This proper name is used for nothing but God, while other names for Allah each of which usually refers to one of His qualities of Beauty and Glory, are often used for other than Him.

The root of the word is mentioned differently;/ ilahat/,/ alahah/,/ alilahah/,/ ilah/,/ walih/; however, Allah, from whatever root it is, has been used as a proper noun, applied to 'the Being Who exists necessarily, by Himself; comprising all the attributes of perfection; a proper name denoting the true god, containing all the excellent, divine names; a unity having all the essence of existing things'.

This Sacred Name is mentioned in the Holy Qur'an almost one thousand times, which is more than any other name of His Holy Names. This name brings light in our heart, makes us firm and calm, and takes us into a world full of purity and serenity.

The term/ ahad/ is derived from/ wahdah/, and some believe that/ ahad/ and/ wahid/ are the same in many cases. In this case,/ ahad/ is interchangeable with/ wahid/ when it is used as an epithet applied for Allah, because/ al-ahad/, as an epithet, is applied to Allah alone, and signifies 'the One'; the Soul; He Who has always been one and alone; or the Indivisible; or He Who has no second( to share )in His Lordship, nor in His Essence, nor in His attributes.

 

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SAHIFEH SAJJADIEH 21

Sahifah Sajjadiyyah 21

Doa’s 42

O God,

Bless Muhammad and his Household and make us one of those who hold fast to its cord, seek haven from its ambiguities in its fortified stronghold, rest in the shadow of its wing, find guidance in the brightness of its morning, follow the shining of its disclosure, acquire light from its lamp, and beg not guidance from any other!

O God, just as through it Thou hast set up Muhammad as a guidepost to point to Thee. And through his Household Thou hast made clear Thy good pleasure’s roads to Thee, so also bless Muhammad and his Household and make the Qur’an our mediation to the noblest stations of Thy honour, a ladder by which we may climb to the place of safety, a cause for our being repaid with deliverance at the plain of Resurrection, and a mean whereby we may reach the bliss of the House of Permanence!          

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